ABSTRACT: Questions remain whether postoperative infections and implant failure can be reduced with the use of antibiotics. Especially, when its routine use can cause adverse effects and may contribute to the development of antibiotic- resistant bacteria. Moreover, there is no consensus regarding appropriate dosage regimen of antibiotics to prevent bacterial infection in implant dentistry. To determine effectiveness of different antibiotics regimens to prevent early infection after implant placement. A systematic review of all relevant studies addressing the use of antibiotic for dental implant surgery was carried-out. Implant groups not using antibiotics, were also analyzed. Primary outcomes were incidence of postoperative infection and frequency of implant failure due to infection. From 164 articles reviewed, 11 fulfilled the selection criteria representing 9472 placed implants. Regimens associated with the use of postoperative antibiotics showed a lower incidence of early infection (postoperative regimens 0%, pre and postoperative regimens 0.22% and 0.53%, long- and short-course, respectively (P= 0.275)). Regarding failure due to infection, no differences between groups were found (P= 0.249). A trend favoring the use of postoperative antibiotic to prevent early infections was observed. Further studies should be carried out in order to provide evidence-based clinical guidelines for use of antibiotics in dental implant placement.

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